Condoms And Contraception
Birth Control Pills
There are a number of highly effective birth control methods. There is considerable misconception about the use contraception and their effectiveness.
In United States, about 40% women use permanent sterilization, 27% use oral contraceptive, 20% women use condoms, 3% use progestin injections and less than 1% women use intra-uterine devices (IUD’s).
Contraception failure rates range from 5-27% for Rhythm and Withdrawal methods, 0.1-3% for oral contraceptives and IUD’s, 1% for injection (Depo) and implants (Norplant).
Oral contraceptive pills remain the most popular type of birth control. They are 92-99.7% effective. But remember that they do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) and HIV.
There may be a slight delay to return back to fertility and pregnancy after stopping the oral contraceptive pill.
Estrogen in the birth control pills increases the risk of blood clots. Other effects produced by estrogen are nausea, fluid retention, breast tenderness, mood swings, and chloasma. Progestin in the pill may cause weight gain, nervousness, depression, tiredness and acne.
Women who take oral contraceptive pills are advised not to smoke. Smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular side effects, especially over the age of 35.
The pill is not a cancer causing but reduces the risk of ovarian and uterine cancer.
The risk of Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among Intra- Uterine Devices (IUD) like coper T users is increased for the first 3 weeks after the insertion of IUD.
An IUD does not interfere with tampon. When properly inserted, it does not get dislodged during sex or cause any pain, and nor can the partner feel it.
It is not advisable to use female and male condoms together since there is a fear of tearing the condoms.
People having a latex allergy can use condoms made of polyurethane or natural membrane.
The progestin patch is less effective in women weighing more than 198 pounds (kg).
The most effective type of periodic abstinence birth control is by checking the basal body temperature. The body temperature goes upo during ovulation – however it requires the use of a special thermometer.
Nonoxynol 9 is the active ingredient in spermicides. This chemical kills the sperms on contact. Pregnancy which results from failure of spermicides is not associated with an increased risk of fetal malformations.
Women who use injectable form of birth control may have a complete disruption of normal menstrual cycle and can develop irregular bleeding that may lead to the absence of menstruation.
Rate of pregnancy after having a vasectomy reversed ranges from 30% to - 60% and the rate after having a tubal ligation reversed is about 40% - 80%. Uccess depends on many associated factors – a successful reversal does not gaurentee success with pregnancy.
After vasectomy it takes about 15-20 ejaculations before a man is totally sterile. When two ejaculates are devoid of sperm only then the male is considered to be totally sterile.