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    Physical Assessment - Chapter 10 Psychosocial Assessment

    Psychosocial assessments are often overlooked as a portion of the physical examination. However, a person's psychological well-being has much to do with physical health. The following guide to psychosocial assessment can be remembered by the acronym "SELF PACING". The findings from this assessment in addition to the physical findings will provide a comprehensive view of the patient's status. S - Self-Esteem: ...
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    Overview of Nursing Practice Models

    For purposes of this paper, the term “nursing practice model” refers to operational models for redesigning nursing practice for the provision of patient care in organizational settings, primarily hospitals and longterm care facilities. Though the models may be implemented organization-wide, they typically redesign nursing practice at the point of patient care delivery, that is, at the nursing unit level. Thus the ...
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    Physical Assessment - Chapter 7 Endocrine System

    h4. Chapter 7: Endocrine System The endocrine system is composed of glands that both produce and secrete hormones. The pituitary gland secretes ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). These hormones stimulate the adrenal cortex and thyroid gland to do their jobs. The adrenal gland produces epinephrine, norepinephrine, and mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. These hormones prepare people for emergency situations ...
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    Deep Vein Thrombosis

    h4. Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the primary cause of fatal and nonfatal pulmonary embolism (PE). Most thrombi form in the deep calf veins - in the valve sinuses of the soleal veins or behind the valve cusps in the posterior and anterior tibial veins. However, 20% or more develop in the popliteal vein, femoral vein, and iliac branches, and ...
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    You Know You're an LPN When...

    You Know You're an LPN When...
    How do you know you’re an LPN (or an LVN if you’re practicing in California or Texas)? See if you recognize yourself in the following tongue-in-cheek list, compiled by a 30-something Mississippi-based LPN. 1. You feel like Malcolm in the Middle—stuck between the RNs and CNAs. 2. You’re so used to eating cold food that you don’t bother microwaving anything other ...
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    Functional Assessment - The Key to Geriatric Care in the 21st Century

    h4. Introduction The next 30 years will result in a unique change in population demographics in this country. This change is already beginning. The baby boomers are getting old. The over 65 population will increase from being the 13% of the population it is today to 20% by the year 2030. More people than ever will reach the 100-year mark. All ...
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    Avian Influenza

    Avian Influenza
    h4. Introduction Most of Asia and parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, are currently experiencing expanding outbreaks of an avian influenza that is decimating domestic fowl populations, infecting and killing people that have unprotected contact with the infected birds, and causing genuine concern in the medical and scientific communities throughout the world. The reason for the multi-national concern is ...
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    Vital Signs: Overview and Effect of Aging Changes

    Vital Signs: Overview and Effect of Aging Changes
    Vital signs show an individual is alive. They include heart beat, breathing rate, temperature, and blood pressure. These signs may be watched, measured, and monitored to check an individual's level of physical functioning. Normal vital signs change with age, sex, weight, exercise tolerance, and condition. Normal ranges for the average healthy adult vital signs are: Temperature: 97.8 - 99.1 degrees Fahrenheit ...
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    Hodgkins Disease & Non Hodgkins Lymphoma

    h4. Background h4. Overview The malignant lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), comprise a group of clinically and pathologically diverse malignant lymphomas of largely unknown cause. Their successful management involves a multidisciplinary approach, proceeding from an accurate diagnosis to a comprehensive staging evaluation and appropriate therapeutic recommendation and regimen. h4. Etiology / Pathogenesis In 1832, Thomas Hodgkin presented a ...
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    Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome

    Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome
    Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome, or Erythema multiforme, is a skin disorder resulting from an allergic reaction. h4. Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors Erythema multiforme is a type of hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction that occurs in response to medications, infections, or illness. Medications associated with erythema multiforme include sulfonamides, penicillins, barbiturates, and phenytoin. Associated infections include herpes simplex and mycoplasma infections. The exact cause is ...
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    Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    h4. Introduction Low back pain is a universal phenomenon. The economic cost in the United States, in terms of lost time and medical expense, amounts to 1.9 billion dollars annually. Over 200,000 patients have surgery for ruptured lumbar discs yearly in the United States. While laminectomy for disc removal is the standard, it is not without its' well-known morbidity. Because of ...
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    Good Bedside Manners Make a Difference

    Good Bedside Manners Make a Difference
    With health care employers increasingly measuring patient satisfaction levels and rewarding their employees for providing high-quality customer service, health professionals are realizing a good bedside manner is more important than ever. Good bedside manners not only improve interactions with patients, but also advance health professionals' careers. Evidence suggests those who have strong relationships with their patients are less likely to get ...
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    Ethics in Clinical Practice

    h4. Introduction Physicians are at the center of the health care process. In this central role, they use their knowledge, skills, and defined processes to provide or coordinate health care for patients. The success of the patient-physician relationship is determined by the way this relationship is valued, developed, nurtured, and maintained. Changes in the health care process bring changes in stakeholders, ...
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    What is Dystonia?

    What is Dystonia?
    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by over-activity of a specific group of muscles and/or muscle. It is the over-activity of these specific muscles that causes involuntary movements and tremors, sustained muscle contractions, and abnormal postures. How is Dystonia Misdiagnosed? Dystonia is misdiagnosed 90% of the time by clinicians. The involuntary movements and spasms caused by dystonia sometimes are attributed to ...
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    Hypothermia

    h4. Introduction Hypothermia is defined as a core temperature of less than 35 degrees C. Below this temperature the body systems for thermoregulation begin to fail. The body's ability to minimize heat loss through radiation, convection, respiration, conduction, and evaporation are very limited. The very young and the very old are the most susceptible to hypothermia as a result of their ...
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    Mitosis and Meiosis: How do Cells Divide?

    Mitosis and Meiosis: How do Cells Divide?
    There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Most of the time when people refer to “cell division,” they mean mitosis, the process of making new body cells. Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. Mitosis is a fundamental process for life. During mitosis, a cell duplicates all of its contents, including its ...
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    Rett Syndrome

    Rett Syndrome
    An important part of the mission of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is to understand all stages of development throughout the lifespan - from birth and childhood, through adolescence and adulthood, and into old age. One of the key ...
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    How Much Does Effective Communication Matter?

    The Problem: "It's my grandmother," explained the scared blond ten-year old. "She's sick again." With the help of some neighbors, Amra Omerovic's resourceful young grandson had brought her to the emergency room. This lovely silver-haired lady was in shock; her blood sugar levels were dangerously high. The doctor was baffled. If this 58-year-old Bosnian grandmother was taking her insulin "just like ...
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    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) - An Introduction

    Introduction CAM's Growing Popularity in the United States Patients were the first to embrace alternative medicine while the medical establishment slowly began to acknowledge its merits. In the United States, alternative therapies are fast becoming an integral part of mainstream health care. In the year 2000, over 40% of Americans spent over 27 billion dollars out of their own pockets on ...
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    Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet

    Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet
    h4. What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. The name myasthenia gravis, which is Latin and Greek in origin, literally means "grave muscle weakness." With current therapies, however, most cases of myasthenia gravis are not as "grave" as the name implies. In ...
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