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  • +6

    What is a Cell?

    What is a Cell?
    Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell. Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular, or have many cells - an estimated 100,000,000,000,000 cells! Each cell is an amazing world unto itself: it can take in nutrients, convert these nutrients into energy, carry out specialized functions, ...
    Rated: +6
  • +2

    Cell Structures

    h4. The Plasma Membrane - A Cell's Protective Coat The outer lining of a eukaryotic cell is called the plasma membrane. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of proteins and lipids, fat-like molecules. Embedded within this membrane are a variety of other molecules that act as ...
    Rated: +2
  • +2

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    h4. What is GERD? Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a more serious form of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which is common. GER occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens spontaneously, for varying periods of time, or does not close properly and stomach contents rise up into the esophagus. GER is also called acid reflux or acid regurgitation, because digestive juices - ...
    Rated: +2
  • -3

    Dumping Syndrome

    Dumping Syndrome
    Dumping Syndrome, or Rapid Gastric Emptying, happens when the lower end of the small intestine (jejunum) fills too quickly with undigested food from the stomach. "Early" dumping begins during or right after a meal. Symptoms of early dumping include nausea, vomiting, bloating, cramping, diarrhea, dizziness, and fatigue. "Late" dumping happens 1 to 3 hours after eating. Symptoms of late dumping include ...
    Rated: -3
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    Hyperglycemia and HIV/AIDS

    Hyperglycemia and HIV/AIDS
    h4. What is glucose? Glucose, commonly called blood sugar, is the body's main energy source. Your body breaks down the food you eat and converts it to glucose. Your cells take glucose from your blood and use it to make energy. h4. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia occurs when you have a higher than usual level of glucose in your blood. This ...
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    Autism Spectrum Disorders

    h4. What Are the Autism Spectrum Disorders? The autism spectrum disorders are more common in the pediatric population than are some better known disorders such as diabetes, spinal bifida, or Down syndrome. Prevalence studies have been done in several states and also in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Asia. A recent study of a U.S. metropolitan area estimated that 3.4 of ...
  • +4

    Celiac Disease

    Celiac Disease
    Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is found mainly in foods but may also be found in products we use every day, such as stamp and envelope adhesive, medicines, and ...
    Rated: +4
  • +4

    Peritoneal Dialysis

    Peritoneal Dialysis
    h4. Introduction With peritoneal dialysis (PD), you have some choices in treating advanced and permanent kidney failure. Since the 1980s, when PD first became a practical and widespread treatment for kidney failure, much has been learned about how to make PD more effective and minimize side effects. Since you don’t have to schedule dialysis sessions at a center, PD gives you ...
    Rated: +4
  • +2

    Chelation Therapy

    h4. What is chelation therapy? Chelation (pronounced key-LAY-shun) therapy is an investigational therapy using a man-made amino acid, called EDTA. It is added to the blood through a vein. An international research study is now testing whether chelation therapy is safe and effective for treating heart disease. Why is this study being conducted? Many people are considering using chelation therapy because ...
    Rated: +2
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    Developmental Hip Dysplasia

    Developmental Hip Dysplasia
    h4. Developmental Hip Dysplasia Explained Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), previously referred to as congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH), means that the hip joint of a newborn baby is dislocated or prone to dislocation. Around 95 per cent of babies born with DDH can be successfully treated. Approximately one in every 600 girls is affected, compared to just one ...
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    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most common treatment for sleep apnea. For this treatment, you wear a mask over your nose during sleep. The mask blows air into your throat at a pressure level that is right for you. The increased airway pressure keeps the throat open while you sleep. The air pressure is adjusted so that it is ...
  • +2

    Scoliosis

    Scoliosis
    h4. Alternative Names Spinal curvature; Kyphoscoliosis h4. Definition Scoliosis is a curving of the spine. The spine curves away from the middle or sideways. Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are three general causes of scoliosis: * Congenital scoliosis is due to a problem with the formation of vertebrae or fused ribs during prenatal development. * Neuromuscular scoliosis is caused by ...
    Rated: +2
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    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    h4. What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Carpal tunnel syndrome is a painful progressive condition caused by compression of a key nerve in the wrist. It occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist. Symptoms usually start gradually, with pain, weakness, or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up ...
  • +5

    Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet

    Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet
    h4. What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. The name myasthenia gravis, which is Latin and Greek in origin, literally means "grave muscle weakness." With current therapies, however, most cases of myasthenia gravis are not as "grave" as the name implies. In ...
    Rated: +5
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    Parkinson's Disease Overview

    Parkinson's Disease Overview
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological condition that typically causes tremor and/or stiffness in movement. The condition affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing PD increases as we age. Most people affected with PD are not aware of any relatives with the condition but in a number of families, ...
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    The Immune Response to Tuberculosis

    The Immune Response to Tuberculosis
    “In my research,” says Gilla Kaplan, Ph.D., of the Public Health Research Institute in Newark, New Jersey, “I ask what aspect of the immune response to infection protects some people from developing TB, and what is missing in those people who develop the disease.” Both human and bacterial factors contribute to the eventual outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. If ...
  • +1

    Heroin Addiction Fact Sheet

    Heroin Addiction Fact Sheet
    h4. Thirty Plus Years Ago In the 1960s, the most popular form of treatment for heroin addiction was “Civil Commitment,” which essentially placed heroin addicts in prison camps. After use of heroin (and other drugs) skyrocketed, methadone was tested and found to be an effective treatment for opiate addiction. In the early 1970s, public concern over veterans returning from Vietnam with ...
    Rated: +1
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    Lupus Fact Sheet

    Lupus Fact Sheet
    Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus) is a serious and potentially fatal autoimmune disease that mainly affects young women. The disease often starts between the ages of 15 and 44. The manifestations of lupus are diverse: it can affect many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. People of all races can have lupus; however, ...
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    End-of-Life Fact Sheet

    End-of-Life Fact Sheet
    h4. Thirty Years Ago In the past, death typically occurred over a short period of time from illness or injury. Often times, death occurred at home, and family members served as caregivers. Issues surrounding end-of-life experiences were poorly understood and little studied. Improvements in medical technology were beginning to prolong life in many life-threatening situations, raising issues of end-of-life care. h4. ...
  • +2

    Going to Extremes: Bipolar Disorder

    Going to Extremes: Bipolar Disorder
    There is a tendency to romanticize bipolar disorder. Many artists, musicians, and writers have suffered from its mood swings. But in truth, many lives are ruined by this disease; and without effective treatment, the illness is associated with an increased risk of suicide. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a serious brain disease that causes extreme shifts in mood, ...
    Rated: +2
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