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    Oral Cancer

    h4. Premalignant Lesions Many malignant lesions have their predecessors. The status of any lesion, whether benign or malignant, can only be confirmed by histologic examination. The American Cancer Society guidelines suggest that lesions which have an unknown source and that fail to heal within two weeks undergo biopsy. Unfortunately, patients may dismiss lesions which are asymptomatic as harmless. Yet squamous cell ...
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    Pre-Anesthetic Assessment

    h4. Historical Perspectives During the 1970's and even later a shotgun approach to pre-anesthetic assessment was routine. Reasons for this attitude included the argument that broad based testing was good screening for patients who might not otherwise seek medical advice on a regular basis. Indeed, it was suggested that the information thus gained might well negate the need for an annual ...
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    Hypothermia

    h4. Introduction Hypothermia is defined as a core temperature of less than 35 degrees C. Below this temperature the body systems for thermoregulation begin to fail. The body's ability to minimize heat loss through radiation, convection, respiration, conduction, and evaporation are very limited. The very young and the very old are the most susceptible to hypothermia as a result of their ...
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    Osteoporosis

    h4. Introduction Osteoporosis remains a serious health problem for society. It is estimated that 36 million Americans, both men and women, suffer from the disorder, which is responsible for a high risk for serious fractures especially of the spine, hip and wrist. It is an insidious disease, sometimes referred to as the silent thief, as it slowly drains away bone mass, ...
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    Substance Abuse

    Substance Abuse
    h4. Introduction Substance abuse and addiction comprise a public health problem with wide-ranging social, economic, and physical consequences. Drug-related deaths have more than doubled since the early 1980s. Although substance abuse costs American society more than $135 billion a year, there is no real way to put a price on the overall costs to society. Increased crime, disease, devastation of families, ...
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    Obesity Losing Weight and Keeping It Off

    h4. Introduction Regardless of what the obese state represents in terms of altered metabolic and hormonal function, obesity is above all a psychological or, perhaps more accurately, a behavioral disorder. Eating is a behavior, and the two most logical and direct ways of losing weight and keeping it off, a sensible diet and moderate exercise, represent, for obese persons, a challenge ...
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    Hodgkins Disease & Non Hodgkins Lymphoma

    h4. Background h4. Overview The malignant lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), comprise a group of clinically and pathologically diverse malignant lymphomas of largely unknown cause. Their successful management involves a multidisciplinary approach, proceeding from an accurate diagnosis to a comprehensive staging evaluation and appropriate therapeutic recommendation and regimen. h4. Etiology / Pathogenesis In 1832, Thomas Hodgkin presented a ...
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    Functional Assessment - The Key to Geriatric Care in the 21st Century

    h4. Introduction The next 30 years will result in a unique change in population demographics in this country. This change is already beginning. The baby boomers are getting old. The over 65 population will increase from being the 13% of the population it is today to 20% by the year 2030. More people than ever will reach the 100-year mark. All ...
    Rated: +4
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    Functional (Nonulcer) Dyspepsia

    h4. Definition and Clinical Picture The term "dyspepsia" is derived from the Greek term for "bad digestion". Used broadly and in a general sense, it may be used to describe a number of upper gastrointestinal disorders of known or unknown etiology. The most common disorders in the group of dyspeptic syndromes with a known cause are peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux ...
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    Foods and Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention

    h4. Introduction In the past ten years scientists have been actively studying phytochemicals that have an influence on human health. From this research we have learned much about prevention and treatment of cancer. The recent Dietary Supplement Health Education Act passed in 1994 has enabled food products to make health claims if they are substantiated by scientific research. This has caused ...
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    Ethics in Managed Care Contracting

    Ethics in Managed Care Contracting
    h4. Introduction Patients are at the center of the health care process. Physicians use their knowledge, skills, and defined processes to provide or coordinate health care for patients. It is the extent to which this relationship is valued, developed, nurtured, and maintained that determines the success of the patient-physician relationship. This important position at the center of the health care process ...
    Rated: +1
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    Ethics in Clinical Practice

    h4. Introduction Physicians are at the center of the health care process. In this central role, they use their knowledge, skills, and defined processes to provide or coordinate health care for patients. The success of the patient-physician relationship is determined by the way this relationship is valued, developed, nurtured, and maintained. Changes in the health care process bring changes in stakeholders, ...
    Rated: +1
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    Erectile Dysfunction

    h4. Introduction Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent inability to achieve and maintain an erection of the penis sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. The word "consistent" is included in the definition because an occasional episode of ED occurs in many men as a normal phenomenon. Additionally, the use of "impotence" as a synonym for ED has been virtually ...
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    Cystic Fibrosis - Update and Perioperative Considerations

    h4. Introduction Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a systemic, recessively inherited disease affecting the glands that produce mucus, tears, sweat, saliva and digestive juices. Normally, these secretions are thin and slippery. But in CF, a defective gene causes the body's secretions to become thick and sticky. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions may plug up tubes, ducts and passageways — ...
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    Clinically Significant Drug Interaction with the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme System

    h4. Introduction Many drugs undergo oxidative biotransformation in order to be transformed from lipophilic to hydrophilic compounds so that they may be more readily eliminated from the body. The cytochrome P450 enzyme system is the major catalyst of oxidative biotransformation reactions involved in drug metabolism. The nomenclature of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system involves grouping the enzymes into families and subfamilies. ...
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    Cancer Screening in Real World Practice

    h4. Introduction Today's clinicians are busier than ever. The managed care revolution, reimbursement, loss of autonomy, and the Internet have all affected today's physician. The generalist is being asked to do more each day with less, and seems to be losing the war over billing, paperwork, independence, and turf. Because traditional CME frequently has been shown to be of limited value ...
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    How Much Does Effective Communication Matter?

    The Problem: "It's my grandmother," explained the scared blond ten-year old. "She's sick again." With the help of some neighbors, Amra Omerovic's resourceful young grandson had brought her to the emergency room. This lovely silver-haired lady was in shock; her blood sugar levels were dangerously high. The doctor was baffled. If this 58-year-old Bosnian grandmother was taking her insulin "just like ...
    Rated: +1
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    Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    h4. Introduction Low back pain is a universal phenomenon. The economic cost in the United States, in terms of lost time and medical expense, amounts to 1.9 billion dollars annually. Over 200,000 patients have surgery for ruptured lumbar discs yearly in the United States. While laminectomy for disc removal is the standard, it is not without its' well-known morbidity. Because of ...
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    Complications in the Postoperative Care Unit

    h4. Introduction h4. Historical Development The complications associated with the administration of anesthetic agents were recognized almost immediately after the introduction of inhalation anesthesia in the mid 19th century. John Snow, the first recognized physician anesthesthetists in the Western World, and the author of what is probably the first major textbook on anesthesia, devoted one third of his text to the ...
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    The Use and Maintenance of Implanted Port Vascular Access Devices

    h4. Introduction This course covers the history, required skills, and proper techniques of accessing and maintaining an implantable port in a clinical setting. The pros and cons of implantable ports versus other central lines are described and troubleshooting techniques are detailed. The importance of patient education is emphasized. The course work is intended for nurses, medical technicians, and physician assistants who ...
    Rated: +3
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